Adam´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: A patient with scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) when bending over will have no straightening of the curve and give a "positive" result. A straightening of the curve would indicate a "negative"result.

Adson´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: The patient is asked to take and hold a deep breath: The neck is extended, then the patient is asked to turn his head from one side to the other side. Downward pressure on the patient´s arm will cause an obliteration of the pulse, in which case, the test is positive and indicates a thoracic outlet syndrome.

Allen´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure to test for occlusion of the ulnar or radial arteries. The patient makes a tight fist so as to express the blood from the skin of the palm and fingers, the examiner makes digital compression on either the radial or the ulnar artery. If upon opening the hand blood fails to return to the palm and fingers an obstruction is indicated in the artery that has not been compressed.

Anterior drawer

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee flexed approximately 90 degrees, the proximal tibia is pulled forward. If excessive movement is found, the test is indicative of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Apley

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is placed prone on the examining table and the knee is flexed 90 degrees. While compressing the knee, the lower leg is rotated in both directions. If this maneuver elicits pain it is probable that a meniscal tear is present.

Apprehension test of the shoulder

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The shoulder is forcefully abducted and externally rotated. Patients who have experienced either dislocation or subluxation of the shoulder will become extremely apprehensive with this maneuver.

Axial compression

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is either sitting or lying and the examiner presses down upon the top of the patient´s head. Narrowing of the neural foramen, pressure on the facet joints, or muscle spasm can cause increased pain and the test may indicate a pressure upon a nerve and the neurologic level of existing pathology.

Babinski´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Normally, when the lateral aspect of the sole of the relaxed foot is stroked the great toe is flexed. If the toe extends instead of flexes and the other toes spread out, the test is positive and would indicate upper motor (brain and spinal cord) involvement.

Bracelet

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: In rheumatoid patients compression of the distal radius and ulna causes pain.

Brudzinski´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Flexion of the neck causes foot, ankle or thigh flexion in patients with meningitis.

Chest expansion

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The chest expansion is measured from maximal exhalation to maximal inspiration. An expansion of less than one inch is indicative of forms of arthritis, which can affect the spine and rib cage, most notably ankylosing spondylitis.

Clonus

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The foot is dorsiflexed by the examiner, eliciting repetitive, uncontrolled up and down motion of the ankle. A positive test indicates pressure upon the spinal cord.

Ely´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is asked to lie prone upon the examining table. The examiner then flexes the leg upon the thigh, making the heel touch the buttock. During the flexion, the pelvis rises from the table to find a positive reaction. The reaction occurs in inflammatory or traumatic lesions.

Finkelstein´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the thumb inside the palm, the wrist and hand are ulnarly deviated, causing pain in the abductor tendons of the thumb at the radial styloid. A positive result indicates deQuervain´s tendonitis of the wrist.

Gaenslen´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient on his back on a table, the knee and hip of one leg are held in a flexed position by the patient, while the other leg, hanging over the edge of the table is pressed down by the examiner to produce hyperextension of the hip. A positive test will produce pain on the affected side in the lumbosacral disease.

Goldthwait´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: (Straight leg raising test.) Performed with the patient lying supine, the entire lower extremity is flexed at the hip with the knee extended and the foot held in a 90-degree dorsiflexed position. As a result the gastrocnemius and hamstrings are tensed and leverage is transmitted to the side of the pelvis being tested.

Hoffman´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: The fingernail of the long finger is pinched and the examiner notes flexion of the distal phalanx of the digits. The sign is indicative of pathology affecting the spinal cord in the cervical region.

Homan´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: A positive test will produce discomfort behind the knee on forced dorsiflexion of the foot and would indicate a thrombosis in the veins of the calf.

Iliac compression

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Also called Erichsen´s test. The examiner presses the iliac crests together. If pain is felt over the joint the reaction is regarded as evidence of an intra-articular sacroiliac lesion. Forcible separation of the iliac crests is more likely to cause pain by stretching the anterior sacroiliac ligaments when the sacroiliac joint is affected.

Impingement

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The shoulder is forcefully abducted or adducted and internally rotated causing the greater tuberosity to press against the undersurface of the acromion. A positive test indicates an impingement syndrome.

Jansen´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is asked to cross his legs at a point just above the ankle. This motion is impossible when osteoarthritis of the hip is present.

Lachman

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee flexed approximately 20 degrees, the proximal tibia is pulled forward. Excessive motion of the tibia anteriorly is indicative of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament. This is found to be the most accurate clinical test for tear of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Laguere´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Carried out with the patient´s spine. The knee is flexed and the hip flexed and abducted. The examiner then presses down upon the opposite anterior superior iliac spine and at the knee. The adductors of the hip are put under tension and the iliac portion of the sacroiliac joint is forced against the sacral surface. The joint is put under strain without pulling upon the sciatic nerve and gluteal structures.

Lasegue´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: (Bragard´s test) Flexion of the affected limb´s hip is not painful, but extension of the knee while the hip is flexed is painful. Such pain would indicate sciatica and spinal cord nerve root compression.

McMurray´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: As the patient lies supine with knee fully flexed the examiner rotates the patient´s foot fully outward and the knee is slowly extended; a painful "click" indicates a tear of the medial meniscus of the knee joint. Inward rotation of the foot with pain indicates a tear in the lateral meniscus.

Minell´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: The examiner places a thumb over the posterior superior iliac spine and applies pressure outward and then inward. Pain experienced during this procedure indicates sensitive ligaments related to the sacroiliac joint.

Minor´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: The method of rising from a sitting position characteristic of the patient with sciatica; the patient will support himself on the healthy side placing one hand on the back holding the affected leg and balancing on the healthy leg.

Ober´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: This test for contracted fascia lata is done by having the patient lie upon his sound side, his hands grasping the lower flexed knee to hold the lower hip in full flexion. The upper thigh is relaxed. The knee on the affected side is then flexed to a right angle, lifted into a position of moderate abduction with the thigh in the coronal plane. When the thigh is relaxed, it remains in abduction if the fascia is contracted. Normally the knee can touch the examining table. The test is used in backache or sciatica to determine whether a contracted fascia lata or iliotibial tract is the cause of symptoms.

Patellar apprehension

: Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee slightly flexed, the examiner attempts to push the patella (knee cap) in a lateral direction. Patients who have experienced a subluxation or dislocation of the patella will become very apprehensive at this point and attempt to stop the examiner from completing the test.

Patrick´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: (Faber) This test for disease of the hip joint is carried out with the patient supine. The knee is flexed on the affected side and the external malleolus placed over the patella of the opposite left to make a figure 4. Pressure is then exerted on the flexed knee. A positive reaction causes pain. When the test is performed in a healthy individual or in one with sciatica, pain is not produced. Discomfort is elicited in hip disorders, also in lesions of the sacroiliac ligaments, at the site involved.

Phalen´s

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Flexion of the wrist reproduces the paresthesias and pain of median nerve compression at the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome). The reverse Phalen maneuver involves hyperextension of the wrist with the resultant median nerve paresthesias.

Pivot shift

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: This is a test for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency of the knee and isperformed by grasping the foot in one hand and placing pressure on the outside of the knee with the opposite hand. With the foot internally rotated and the lower leg pulled outward, the knee is flexed and extended. A positive test is experienced when the joint (clicks) in and out of place during the maneuver.

Posterior drawer

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee flexed approximately 90 degrees, the proximal tibia is pushed posteriorly. Excessive movement is indicative of a tear in the posterior cruciate ligament.

Quadriceps inhibition

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Pressure is placed over the superior aspect of the patella and the patient is asked to perform a straight leg-raising maneuver. Pain and grinding with this maneuver is indicative of chondromalacia of the patella.

Slocum

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee flexed approximately 90 degrees, the foot is placed in both internal and external rotation for separate test. The proximal tibia is then pulled forward. Excessive anterior motion of the tibia indicates rotatory instability of the knee, either anteromedial or anterolateral, depending upon the direction of rotation of the foot.

Straight leg raising

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the knee extended and the patient supine or seated, the hip is flexed (with the leg straight). A positive test results in pain in the sciatic nerve distribution and suggests a disc herniation.

Supraspinatous isolation

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Strength of abduction of the shoulder is tested by abducting and forward flexing the arm with the forearms in internal rotation. This isolates the supraspinatous muscle, the most common area of weakness in a rotator cuff tear. If weakness is demonstrated this test is very suggestive for a rotator cuff tear.

Thomas test

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the patient supine, the opposite hip from that to be tested is flexed maximally. With the opposite leg held on the chest, the degree of flexion found in the hip to be tested indicates a flexion contracture.

Tinel´s sign

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: A tingling sensation in the distal end of a limb when percussion is made over the site of a divided nerve. It indicates a partial lesion or the beginning of regeneration of the nerve.

Toryn´s sign

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: In sciatica, if the toe is dorsiflexed the patient will feel pain in the greater sciatic notch (buttocks).

Trendelenburg test

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient standing erect with back to examiner is told to lift one leg and then the other. When weight is supported by the affected limb the pelvis on the healthy side falls instead of rising. A positive test indicates a gluteus medias weakness or a dislocated hip.

Vanzetti´s sign

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With sciatica the pelvis will always be level in spite of scoliosis, but in other lesions with scoliosis the pelvis is inclined.

Villaret´s sign

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The great toe will flex upon tapping the Achilles´ tendon in sciatica.

Waddell test

Type: Orthopedic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is tested for appropriateness of response to tenderness, axial loading, rotation, straight leg raising in the seated position, regional disturbances and overreaction. An inappropriate response in three of the five areas is very suggestive of functional overlay in patients with back problems.

Bakody

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: The patient with cervical radicular pain actively places the palm of the affected extremity flat on the top of the head raising the elbow to a height approximately level with the head. The sign is present when the radiating pain is lessened or absent by this maneuver.
Significance: Nerve root irritation by way of cervical foraminal compression.

Synonym: Cervical foraminal compression test.

Belt

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient with low back symptomatology in the standing position flexes the dorsolumbar spine while the examiner notes the amount of flexion necessary to significantly aggravate the pain. The examiner then standing behind the patient wraps his arms around the patient interlocking his fingers together over the abdomen below the iliac crests while bracing a hip against the patient´s sacrum. The patient is directed to flex the spine again to the same degree as the examiner holds his position immobilizing the patient´s pelvis.
Significance: If the lesion is pelvic in nature, flexing the spine with the pelvis immobilized will not aggravate the discomfort, if spinal in nature, the pain will be aggravated in both instances.
Synonym: The supported Adam´s test.

Bragard

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient supine and both lower limbs straight and parallel, the whole extremity on the affected side is flexed on the hip until the patient experiences pain with the lower limb held in this position the foot is strongly dorsiflexed. The sign is present if there is an increase in radicular pain from this action.
Significance: Peripheral or nerve root irritation of the sciatic nerve.

Ely´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient prone, the knee is flexed toward the buttock on the same side. The sign is present when the pelvis rises from the table somewhat in unison with the knee flexion and the thigh goes into abduction at the hip joint.
Significance: Rectus femoris and/or lateral thigh fascia contracture.

Ely heel to buttock

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: This is a two-stage test performed with the patient prone; in the first stage the knee is flexed approximating the heel to the opposite buttock, from this position the thigh is hyperextended.
Significance:
1. In any significant hip lesion it will be impossible to do the test normally.
2. In the irritation of the iliopsoas muscle or its sheath it will be impossible to extend the thigh to any normal degree.
3. Inflammation of the lumbar nerve roots will be aggravated with production of femoral radicular pain.
4. Lumbar nerve root adhesions will be stretched with the production of upper lumbar discomfort.

Fajersztajn´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
In unilateral sciatica the examiner straight leg raises the unaffected limb until it causes or increases the opposite side radiculitis; if none is produced by this maneuver, strong dorsiflexion of the foot is added to the straight leg raising. The production of radicular pain on the opposite side by either of these two actions is a positive test.
Significance: Sciatica produced at the nerve root level is a confirmatory test for a ruptured disc lesion.
Synonym: Well leg raising test; crossed sciatic sign; Lasegue contralateral sign.

Gaenslen´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is supine, the affected side lying close to the edge of the table, the hip and knee of the non-affected side (if the lower trunk pain is unilateral) are flexed. The patient is directed to clasp his hands around the flexed knee and hold it to his chest. The patient is then brought toward the side of the table and the opposite lower limb is extended over the table edge at the hip. The examiner then applies downward pressure against the clasped knee and against the knee of the extended hip. Exacerbation of pain from the pelvis constitutes a positive test.
Significance: The test is specific of a sacroiliac joint lesion.
Note: The Gaenslen´s test is to sacroiliac disease what the Babinski sign is to corticospinal tract disease, but its validity is compromised with the presence of a hip or knee lesion, or adhesions of the upper lumbar nerve roots. Classically the hyperextension movement brings out the sacroiliac symptomatology, however, with the tremendous torsion stress that is put into the pelvis through the sacroiliac joints, if there is any significant lesion on either side, this maneuver will bring it out, especially in cases of wide, general bilateral pain.

Jackson compression

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient is sitting upright with the examiner standing behind. The patient is directed to laterally flex the neck and head in an attempt and without undue discomfort to approximate the ear on the effected side to the shoulder. The examiner then clasps his hands over the patient´s head and exerts downward pressure. An exacerbation of cervical and/or radicular pain indicates a positive test.
Significance: Nerve root compression.

Kemp´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The test is performed with the patient either standing or sitting. In the former position the examiner, standing behind the patient, while one hand anchors the pelvis and sacrum and with the other he grasps the opposite shoulder; holding the pelvis, the shoulder is firmly forced obliquely backward, downward and medialward. In the latter position the examiner stands in front of the patient who is sitting with arms folded across the body and legs dangling over the examining table. With one hand stabilizing the pelvis by firmly pressing down on the thigh, the examiner with the other hand pushes the homolateral shoulder obliquely backwards putting the lower spine on the opposite side in a combined position of rotation, lateral bending and extension as was also the objective in the standing position. Low back pain radiating into the lower extremity indicates a positive test but may have different interpretations.
Significance: In disk protrusion or prolapse the disc nuclear material may lie in a medial, lateral or inferior position relative to the nerve root. In disk material medial to the nerve root, the patient will lean into the side of the disk compression and the Kemp test will be primarily positive when leaning away from the side of the lower extremity dermatogenous pain and mildly positive when leaning into the side of pain. In disk material lateral to the nerve root, the relief position of the patient will be away from the side of the pain and negative when leaning away. In an inferiorly placed disk, the patient resists bending to either side and prefers to stay in a strict flexed attitude of the lumbar spine.
Note: Local pain in the low back does not constitute a positive Kemp´s test, but rather is indicative of a strain or sprain of the posterior articular facets and their pericapsular tissue. The pain into the lower extremity will be that of a pattern of dermatogenous radiation relative to the involved nerve root being compressed by discal protrusion or prolapse when the test is positive.

Laguerre´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient lying supine, the thigh and knee are flexed to right angles, the thigh is then abducted and rotated outward much like the Patrick test except for the heel not approximating the opposite knee. The head of the femur is forced against the anterior portion of the hip joint capsule by this action and when this produces pain the test is positive.
Significance: The negative value or what the test does not aggravate is important. Pain will be elicited in a homolateral hip joint lesion, iliopsoas muscle spasm or a sacroiliac lesion but not in a lumbar or lumbosacral lesion.

Lasegue

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the patient supine and the knee in extension, the examiner with one hand under the heel to lift and the other hand over the knee to prevent its flexion, slowly flexes the thigh on the pelvis to a right angle or ninety degrees. The test is positive when the straight leg cannot be raised painlessly to this level because of aggravation of low back and sciatic pain. The angle of flexion at which pain occurs as well as the site and degree of pain are always recorded. Significance: To many the test is of no particular diagnostic significance. To some it is of limited significant value and to a few it is one of the most important tests in differential diagnosis of low back radiculopathy. Almost all agree, however, that the test in and of itself is at best, equivocal. When used in conjunction with other special orthopedic tests and signs, or when modified from the classical procedure it may be a valuable aid. For instance, if the sciatic neuralgia and foot dorsiflexion increases this pain, this is evidence of radiculopathy; if pain occurs at fifteen degrees of straight leg raising before the nerve roots are stretched, this is evidence of spasmophilia; if pain occurs at eighty degrees of flexion which is when the fifth lumbar nerve root is under maximum pull, this may indicate an L4-5 disk herniation. Thus the test by itself may signify a diversity of diagnoses. Indeed! Even its name shows inconsistencies, the test described by Lasegue was that of hip flexion to ninety degrees followed by knee extension (The Kernig test). The term "Lasegue" now has clinical acceptance as being synonymous with straight leg raising.
Synonym: The straight leg-raising test, the SLR test.

Lasegue differential

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
If in a patient with sciatica, the examiner elicits pain on flexing the hip with the knee extended, but flexing the thigh on the pelvis with the knee flexed produces no sciatic pain, the sign is present.
Significance: Hip joint disease is ruled out.

Lasegue rebound

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient supine, arms at the sides and legs straight out, the examiner performs straight leg raising slowly on the side of the main complaint; at the point where the straight leg raising produces muscle resistance as recognized by the examiner, or pain as indicated by the patient, the leg is suddenly dropped, without warning, into a pillow or the examiner´s other hand. When this act aggravates backache and sciatic pain and increases low back muscle spasm the test is positive.
Significance: The test is particularly diagnostic of psoas spasm or irritation, and generally indicative of an intervertebral disc lesion above the lumbosacral level.

Synonyms: Lewin´s Lasegue test in reverse, the drop Lasegue test.

Lasegue sitting

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient with legs dangling, is sitting upright on the edge of a table or chair, which has not backrest. The examiner faces the patient and usually under the guise of "checking the circulation," or feeling the skin or "checking for flat feet," extends the patient´s legs below the knee, one at a time, so that the lower limb from the hip to the foot is parallel with the floor. In the absence of radiculoneuropathy the patient should notice no discomfort by this action.
Significance: Initially the same as the Lasegue test, the modification of the straight leg raise in this sitting position, however, has several other advantages:
1. In the supine position straight leg raising may be difficult as the patient may squirm and shift the pelvis making the leg abduct and rotate.
2. The apprehensive patient may attempt to ward off anticipated pain and make the test positive sooner than warranted.
3. In the sitting position the patient faces the examiner, feels more secure and at ease, is less likely to even know he is being tested under the various guises mentioned and thus there was a disarming and distracting effect. The test is performed mostly with complete unawareness on the part of the patient in those suspected of simulating, falsifying or magnifying their symptoms.
4. The test has excellent objective value when the examiner is able to determine immediately the slightest attempt on the part of the patient to withdraw by leaning back from the induced pain.
Synonym: Sitting straight leg raising test.

Lindner´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: With the patient supine, the examiner standing behind the patient´s head puts both hands in back of the occiput and enforces head, neck and dorsolumbar flexion, rounding the trunk into one large "C-shaped" curve. The sign is present when it aggravates or reduplicates the radicular pain of the maincomplaint.
Significance: Low back nerve root compression.

Maximum cervical compression

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient, in a sitting position, is directed to actively bring the ear of the involved side as close to the ipsilateral shoulder as possible. From this posture the patient is further directed to bring the chin as close as possible to the same shoulder. Eliciting radicular pain on the side of the lateral flexion and rotation constitutes a positive test. The test may be repeated passively if there is no response from active motion.
Significance: Cervical nerve root compression, lateral flexion combined with the above-described rotation will narrow the diameters of the intervertebral foramina as much as anatomically possible and any significant impingement upon the nerve roots will be revealed.

Minor´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Sign
Procedure: A method of arising from a chair whereby the patient grasps both arms of the chair with his hands, leans forward, jackknifing the thighs and the dorsolumbar spine so that his head is over the feet. Thus bringing the elbows into acute flexion the patient then pushes himself to an upright position by straightening out the elbows and in this way spares lower limb effort. The patient may substitute his knees for chair arms and more or less climb up the thighs using the same aforementioned movements. Or the patient may also support himself on the healthy side, placing one hand on the back, bending the affected side and balancing on the healthy leg.
Significance: The sign is characteristic for patients with sciatica.

Ober´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: The patient lies on the side. The side to be tested is superiorward. The underneath hip and knee are flexed at right angles to flatten the lumbar spine and to give stability to the patient. The lower limb to be tested is straight and parallel with the trunk. The examiner with one hand gives firm downward pressure over the ilia not allowing it to move during the test, with the other hand the examiner grasps the patient´s ankle, abducts and extends the lower limb. When the hip is fully extended the examiner allows the straight limb to fall into adduction. Normally the limb when in a straight line with the trunk will fall beyond the midline to the table. If the leg remains more or less passivelyabducted and does not fall to the table the test is positive.
Significance: Abduction contracture of the hip: Shortening of the iliotibial band, this band can be easily felt with the examining fingers between the crest of the ilium and the anterior aspect of the greater trochanter. In some cases the pain on one side can be increased by doing the abduction test on the opposite side. The angle the thigh makes with a horizontal line parallel to the table represents the degree of contracture. The sign is present both in the conscious and comatose patient.
Synonym: Abduction test.

Patrick´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the patient supine, the examiner places the external malleolus of the suspected limb over the patella of the opposite side. Downward pressure on the thigh is then exerted by the hand of the examiner. A positive test is revealed when hip pain, especially in the area of the hip flexors, is elicited.
Significance: Hip joint disease - the test mainly antagonizes hip flexor spasm brought on by an inflammatory lesion.
Synonym: Called the FABERE sign from the acronym of the maneuvers involved: Flexion, abduction, external rotation and extension; also called the Sign of Four test.

Wright´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: Before this test is given, an Allen´s test is performed to establish patency of the radial arteries so it can be determined that Wright´s test was responsible for the results as opposed to them already being there from another underlying pathology.
Procedure: The patient is seated upright with both arms hanging at the sides, the examiner is behind, facing the patient´s back. With the examiner palpating the radial pulse, both arms in turn are abducted to one hundred and eighty degrees actively and passively, the examiner noting at how many degrees of abduction the radial pulse on the affected side diminishes or disappears when compared with the oppositeside.
Significance: Neurovascular compression of the Axillary Artery as seen in the Hyperabduction Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
Note: Many patients have cessation of the radial pulse upon abduction in the absence of the Hyperabduction Syndrome, for this reason the non-affected side is used for comparison. If the non-affected limb shows radial pulse dampening or cessation both actively and passively at the same approximate degree of abduction as the affected side, the test is not positive for Hyperabduction Syndrome.
Synonym: The Hyperabduction maneuver.

Yeoman´s

Type: Chiropractic
Sign/Test: Test
Procedure: With the patient prone, the examiner with one hand exerts downward pressure over the suspected sacroiliac joint while with the other hand the examiner maximally flexes the ipsilateral knee and from this position hyperextends the thigh lifting it from the table while holding down the pelvis with the other hand. Pain deep in the sacroiliac joint constitutes a positive test.
Significance: Strain of the anterior sacroiliac ligaments.